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CHURCH HISTORY #1 & #2

ESSENTIAL 40#35 – CHURCH HISTORY #1

Some believe that the Churches of Revelation are a prediction of the periods of Church history.  This theory may or may not be true. Nevertheless, these seven Churches will be used to summarize Church history in this overview of Church history.


The Church of Ephesus – the Church of empty duty (60-200 A.D)

Key events: (1) Martyrdom of James, the brother of Jesus (62) (2) Nero's persecution (64) (3) Martyrdom of Peter& Paul (64) (4) Fall of Jerusalem (70) (5) Persecutions under Domition (90), Trajan (98-117) (Pliny's letter), Antonius (138—161) (martyrdom of Polycarp), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180) (maryrdom of Justin Martyr)

Key people: (1) Polycarp (Bishop of Smyrna and disciple of John the Baptist) (2) Ignatius (  -110) (Bishop of Antioch) (3) Irenaeus (disciple of Polycarp; "Against Heresies") (4) Justyn Martyr (  -165) ("First Apology" & "Dialogue with Trypho")

Key issues: (1) Gnosticism – believed that a lower & less than holy emanation from God created this evil world; Jesus not of human flesh; salvation comes when some who are spiritual beings learn the secret knowledge of their origin and the path to their spiritual destiny. (2) Docetism – it only seemed like Jesus was flesh and it only seemed like he died. (3) Marcion – Anti-Jewish; rejected OT & some of NT books (created the issue that lead to developing the NT canon) (4) Montanism – 2 women prophets gave first person prophecies from God ("God said, "…") (5) Development of NT Canon. (6) The rise of bishops in key cities.


The Church of Smyrna – the rich-suffering Church (200-312 A.D.)

Key events: Persecutions under Severus (193-211), Maximus (235-8), Decius (249-51), Valerian (253-260)---period of peace (260-303), & the great persecution under Diocletian (303)
Key persons: (1) Tertullian (160-204) ("Apology" & "Against Marcion") (2) Origin (185-204) (most prolific writer of early Church; greatly influenced by Greek philosophy; allegorizer) (3) Antony (about 256-356) (earliest Christian monk; lived in desert)

Key issues: (1) Apostolic successions – Bishops replace Apostles? (2) Monarchianism – one God & 3 different modes (like ice, water & steam) (3) Martyrs & lapsed – lapsed had worshipped Caesar as God rather than die (could they come back to the Church?)


The Church of Pergamus – the Church of doctrinal compromise (312-600 A.D.)

Key events: (1) Constantine's conversion (312). (2) Council of Nicea (325) – called to correct Arianism (taught that Jesus a created but superior being). (3) Council of Constantinople (381) – dealt with Nestorianism (the human & Divine natures of Jesus not connected) & ended Arianism. (4) Council of Ephesus (431) – dealt with Nestorianism and Pelagianism (Adam's sin only affected Him; we are not born sinners). (5) Council of Chalcedon (451) -  dealt with Eutychianism (Jesus' human nature swallowed up by Divine nature, like wine poured into the sea)

Key people: (1) Athanasius (296-373) – homoousia vs homoiousia (Jesus same or similar substance as God) (2) Jerome (345-420) – translated Latin Vulgate (3) Augustine (354-430) –  a great theologian of Church history ("Confessions" & "City of God") (4) John Crysostom (350-407) – "golden mouthed" preacher (5) Leo I (440-461) – Bishop of Rome (his influence led to there being a Pope in Rome) (6) Gregory I, the Great (540-604) – Pope 590-604. (7) Benedict – most famous Monk (8) Simeon Stylites (   - 459) – monk who lived 30 yrs on a pillar in Antioch.

Key issues: (1) The Trinity – the threat of Arianism (2) Jesus Christ God and man – the threat of Nestorianism and Eutychianism (3) Man's nature – the threat of Pelagianism (4) The papacy (5) Monastic life

RESOURCES: EERDMAN'S HANDBOOK TO THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY; CHURCH HISTORY IN PLAIN LANGUAGE by Bruce Shelley; A HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH by Walker; CHARTS OF CHURCH HISTORY by Walton.

ASSIGNMENT:
1. Match each of the following names with someone who lived in the same time     as them in the other column:
                    Augustine                    Justin Martyr
                    Tertullian                     Nero
                    Polycarp                      Origen
                    Paul                            Jerome
2. Underline the following false teachings that had to do with the Trinity:      Pellagianism, Nestorianism, Monarchianism, Gnosticism, Arianism,     Montanism, Nestorianism, and Eutychianism.

3. Do you believe that Churches should have received back those who lapsed?     (explain)  Who were the lapsed?

4. Do you think that Constantine making the Roman Empire a Christian Empire     helped or hurt the Church? (explain)

 

ESSENTIAL 40#35 – CHURCH HISTORY #2

The Church of Thyatira – the Church of moral compromise (600-1500 A.D.)

Key events: (1) Birth of Islam (622) (2) Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Emperor (800) (3) The Crusades (1095-1291) (4) A French Pope (1305-77) and two Popes (1378-1417) (even three Popes) (5) Council of Constance (1417) – to choose one Pope (6) Fall of Constantinople To Turks (1453) (7) New monastic orders – Franciscan (1210) and Augustinian (1244)
Key people: (1) Gregory VII (1073-85) – started Cardinals to elect Pope (2) Anselm (1033-1109) – Scholasticism (attempted to prove the existence of God by reason) (3) Abelard (1100-60) – controversial intellectual; prepared way for Thomas Aquinas (4) Innocent III (1198-1216) – the most powerful Pope (5) Gregory IX – responsible for the Inquisition (6) John Wycliffe (1320-84) and John Hus (1374-1415 – started reform movement preparing way for the Reformation) (7) Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) (8) Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)

Key issues: (1) Iconoclasm – Western Church attacked Eastern Church's worship of holy images (2) Inquisition – heretics punished and killed (3) The seven sacraments – baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, ordination, & matrimony (4) Cathedrals (5) Waldenses (1179) (6) Scholasticism


The Church of Sardis – The Church that is alive, but dead (1500-1650 A.D.)

Key events: (1) Printing press invented (1430-40) (2) Columbus discovers America (1492) (3) Luther's 95 Theses (1517) (4) Tyndale's NT (1525) (5) Anabaptists (1525) (6) Jesuits founded by Ignatius Loyola (1534) (against Protestants) (7) Council at Trent (1545-63) - Catholic response to Reformation (8) King James Bible (1604) (9) Pilgrims (1620) (10) Textus Receptus (1565) (11) King James' Bible (1611)

Key People: (1) Martin Luther (1483-1546) (2) Melancthon (1497-1560) (3) Zwingli (1484-1531) (4) John Calvin (1509-64) (5) Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609) (6) Henry VIII (15090-47) (7) Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) (8) Meno Simon (1496-1561) – began the Mennonites (pacifists) (9) John Knox (1514-72) (10) John Bunyan (1628-88) – "Pilgrim's Progress"

Key issues: (1) Renaissance – return to Greek classical thought (2) Protestant Reformation (3) Denominations begin (4) Puritans


The Church of Philadelphia – the Church of the Open Door (1650-1789 A.D.)

Key events: (1) Pilgrim's Progress (1678) (2) The Great Awakening (1726-1760) (3) Independence Day (July 4, 1776) (4) John Wesley's conversion (May 24, 1738)
Key persons: (1) George Fox (Quakers) (2) Isaac Newton (1642-1727) (3) David Hume (1711-76) – a skeptic (4) Voltaire (1694-1778) – passionate critic of Church (5) Isaac Watts hymn writer, (6) Howell Harris (1714-1773) – Welsh revival (7) John (1703-91) And Charles Wesley (1707-88) – Methodist church (8) George Whitfield (1714-70) (9) Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) (10) David Branierd – missionary to American Indians (11) Count Von Zinzendorf (1700-60) – Moravians (Pietists) (12) John Newton – Amazing Grace (13) John Bunyan (1628-88)

Key Issues: (1) Deism – "watchmaker God" (2) Unitarians – no Trinity (3) Quietism – meet God when totally surrender (passive)(Madam Guyon, Fenelon) (4) Revivals (5) Unitarianism (6) Deism (7) American revolution


The Laodicean Church – the luke-warm Church (1789 A.D. – present)

Key events: (1) The Second Great Awakening (1780s) (2) French Revolution (1793) (3) Finney's revivals begin (1824) (4) YMCA founded (1844) (5) Communist Manifesto (1848) (6) Immaculate conception (1854) (7) Vatican I (1870) – Papal infallibility (8) Darwin's Origin of the Species (1859)

Key persons: (1) William Carey (1761-1834) founder of modern missions (2) William Wilberforce (1759-1833) fought slavery (3) William Booth (1825-1912) – founded Salvation Army (4) Charles Spurgeon (1829-1912) (5) Hudson Taylor (1832-1905) – China Inland Mission (6) Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton Stone – began Christian Church (7) D. L. Moody (8) George Mueller – man of faith who began orphanages in England (9) Adoniram Judson – missionary to Burma (10) Karl Barth (1886-1968) (11) Martin Luther King (1924-68) (12) Billy Graham

Key issues: (1) The French Revolution (2) Liberalism (3) Bible criticism (4) Social Gospel (5) Pentocostal/Charismatic movement (6) worldwide missions (7) Existentialism – "God is dead" (8) Bible criticism (9) Missions societies

ASSIGNMENT:
1. Of the key persons listed in these time periods, which five do you see as the     most heroic (explain):

2. Do you believe that monasticism was good for the Church or bad? (explain     your answer)

3. Do you believe that our country would be the type of country it is without the     revivals in Europe and the Great Awakenings? (explain)