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Old Testament Overview - Haggai

The prophet of God's jealousy
 
Introduction:  His time: to understand about Haggai's time, we need to be familiar with the book of Ezra.  Israel had been taken into exile by the Babylonians and continued to be in exile when the Persians and Medes conquered Babylonia.  (Ezra 1-2: Cyrus allows about 50,000 Jews to return under Zerubbabel.  Ezra 3: The altar is completed and the building of the temple begins.  Ezra 4: The enemies of Israel bring a halt to the building of the temple.  Ezra 5:1-2: Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the prophet persuade the Jews to resume building the temple.)  (The book of Haggai is prophetic messages at that time.)  (Haggai's ministry: to rebuke Israel for not putting God and the temple first in their lives. See Ezra 5:1, 6:14)

Message #1 (1:1-15)  (1) Introduction (1:1)  (This message is given "in the second year of King Darius."  It is about 15 years since the building of the temple began. Compare Haggai 1:1 and Ezra 3:8, 4:24)  ("Since the Jews probably returned to Judah in the spring of 537 B.C., the second year would be the spring of 536." NIV Study Bible note on Ezra 3:8)  (Zerubbabel was the "governor of Judah."  He was the grandson of Jehoiachin. Compare Haggai 1:1 to I Chron. 3:17, 19)  (Joshua was the "high priest."  His father was the high priest at the time of the invasion of Babylon. See I Chron. 6:15(2) The remnant of Israel's excuse for not building the temple is as follows: "The time has not yet come for the Lord's home to be rebuilt." (1:2-8)  Possibly, they felt that the 70-year judgment on Israel had not yet concluded. See Jer. 25:11-12, 29:10; II Chron. 36:2; Dan. 9:1-2  God, though, reveals their deeper motives—they put their own self-indulgence and building their own houses over the building of God's house. 1:3-4)  (God asks them to consider the consequences of having wrong priorities. 1:5-11)  (You work, but you do not prosper. 1:5-7.  They will not find satisfaction in their work until they put God first. See Matt. 6:33  They needed to give careful thought to their "ways." 1:5)  (God's solution: start building the temple. 1:8)  (For us, it means we are to seek first of all to build God's church—not the building but the people. See Matt. 28:18-20; Rom 12:1-2)  (3) God's conclusion: they had not prospered because God's house remained in ruins. (1:9-11)  (Even nature was their enemy.)  (4) The remnant obeys and begins work on the temple on the 24th day of the sixth month. (1:12-15) Compare 1:1 and 1:15

Message #2 (2:1-9)  (1) Introduction (2:1-2)  (The message came on the "twenty-first day of the seventh month.")  (According to Lev. 23:39-44, this message was received during the Feast of Tabernacles.)  (2) God tells them through Haggai not to be discouraged that the new temple is not as glorious as Solomon's temple was. (2:3-9)  (Some who had seen Solomon's temple were pointing out how pitiful the new temple was in comparison to Solomon's temple. See Ezra 3:12)  (God, through Haggai, encourages Zerubbabel and Joshua to "be strong."  Why?  Because "I am with you."  Why?  "I will keep my covenant with you." 2:5  Why? My Spirit remains among you.  Do not fear." 2:5)  ("In a little while I will once more shake the heavens and the earth, the sea, and the dry land . . .and the desired of all nations will come, and I will fill this house with glory." 2:6-7)  ("the desired of all nations = the Messiah.)  ("fill this house with glory."  God's ultimate goal is not to fill a building, but to fill His people with His glory.  "To them God has chosen to make known among the Gentiles the glorious riches of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory." Colossians 1:27)  ("And in this place I will grant peace."  2:9  This also was fulfilled in Jesus the Messiah.  "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David’s throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever. The zeal of the Lord Almighty will accomplish this." Isaiah 9:6-7)  (We who are Christians have experienced part of that "peace" already—peace with God.  In our future, He will bring peace on earth. See Eph. 1:9-10)

Message #3 (2:10-19)  (1) Introduction to the message (2:10)  (The message is given on the "twenty-fourth day of the ninth month."  (2) Haggai symbolizes Israel's past defilement (2:11-15)  (Moral cleanness cannot cleanse that which is unclean. 2:11-12)  (God asks them to ask their priests if consecrated meat could touch other food and make it also consecrated.  The answer is "No."  Nor could Israel be cleansed by God if they themselves were not clean in their hearts.)  (A relationship with the Holy God does not make us clean if we are not clean in heart ourselves.  Going to church does not make us pure if we are not pure in heart ourselves.  Even reading God's Word does not make us pure unless we receive it with a pure heart.)  (Moral uncleanness can defile that which is clean. 2:13)  (So, it was with Israel when they made their offerings. 2:14)  (They were defiled, so what they offered to God was defiled.)  (3) Consider how you were disciplined in the past. (2:15-17)  (Before they began to work on the temple, God had purposely prevented them from prospering, yet they had not turned to Him.)  (4) But from this day forth, you will be blessed—from the day they resumed building the temple. (2:18-19)  (When they put God first, God began to bless them.  "But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well." Matthew 6:33)

Message #4 (2:20-23)  (1) Introduction to the message. (2:20)  (This the "second" message on the twenty-fourth day of the month.")  (2) "I will shake the heavens and the earth" and "shatter the power of the foreign kingdoms." (2:21-22) See also Zech. 14:1-15; Ezek. 38-39  Compare to 2:6-7  Could this be referring to the tribulation period described in Rev. 6-19?  (3) At that time, I will make "my servant Zerubbabel" "like my signet ring for I have chosen you.")  (Zerubbabel symbolizes the Messiah—as Zerubbabel's ancestor David also symbolized the Messiah.  Both Zerubbabel and David are found in Jesus' genealogy in Matt. 1:6 and 1:12; and in Luke 3:27 and 3:31.)  (The "signet ring" was used in the same way as a signature is used today.  It represented the person who wore it.  It carried his authority and honor.  "It came to stand for one's most prized possession." Feinberg, The Minor Prophets.)  (So, God's "signet ring" on Zerubbabel carried God's authority and honor.  It pointed to Jesus perfectly and completely wearing God's authority and honor.)  (If a king gave someone his "signet ring," it meant that person had the authority, honor, and love of that king.  Zerubbabel would be honored by God by being part of Jesus' genealogy. See Esther 3:12, 8:8, Song of Solomon 8:6; Jer. 22:24)

Key Verses:  1:4, 9-11, 2:4-9, 2:21-22, 23

Key Teachings:  If we put God first, He will bless us. (2:4, 19)   Be strong in the Lord. (2:4-9)  Zerubbabel is a type of Christ. (2:23)

Old Testament Overview Studies

Old Testament Overview
Table of Contents
Old Testament Overview Outline
Old Testament Overview Genesis
Old Testament Overview Exodus to Deuteronomy
Old Testament Overview Furniture of the Tabernacle
Old Testament Overview Dress of Priests and High Priest
Old Testament Overview Dress of High Priest
Old Testament Overview Canaan: What Can it Teach Us?
Old Testament Overview Israel, God's Kingdom
Old Testament Overview Moses—Failure the Backdoor to Success
Old Testament Overview The Mosaic Covenant
Old Testament Overview The Ten Commandments
Old Testament Overview The Offerings
Old Testament Overview Uncleanness
Old Testament Overview The Priesthood
Old Testament Overview The Festivals
Old Testament Overview The Nazirite Vow
Old Testament Overview Joshua to Ruth
Old Testament Overview Prophecies of the Redeemer—Genesis to Ruth
Old Testament Overview I and II Samuel
Old Testament Overview Saul and David Compared
Old Testament Overview Jonathan and David Compared
Old Testament Overview The Davidic Covenant
Old Testament Overview I And II Kings
Old Testament Overview Israel's and Judah's Kings
Old Testament Overview Divided Kings who Divided
Old Testament Overview Criticisms of God's Actions in the Old Testament
Old Testament Overview Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther
Old Testament Overview Ruth and Esther Compared
Old Testament Overview Job to Song of Solomon
Old Testament Overview Proverbs: Wise Man or Fool?
Old Testament Overview Isaiah
Old Testament Overview Jeremiah
Old Testament Overview Daniel
Old Testament Overview Hosea
Old Testament Overview Joel
Old Testament Overview Amos
Old Testament Overview Obadiah
Old Testament Overview Jonah
Old Testament Overview Micah
Old Testament Overview Nahum
Old Testament Overview Habakkuk
Old Testament Overview Zephaniah
Old Testament Overview Haggai
Old Testament Overview Zechariah
Old Testament Overview Malachi