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Old Testament Overview - THE DAVIDIC COVENANT (II Sam. 7:8-16; I Chron. 17:7-14)

The Historical context:
1. David desires to build a house for God (David had a house of cedar and all God had was a tent—the tabernacle.) (II Sam. 7:1-3)
2. Nathan receives God's answer to David's request: God did not ask for David to build him a house. (II Sam. 7:4-7)
3. God tells David, though, what He will do for him:  David's son Solomon will build the temple—the house for God, but God will establish David's kingdom forever. (II Sam. 7:8-16)

Conditional:  The discipline of David's son and his descendents is conditional on their obedience. (II Sam. 7:14; Ps. 89:30-32)
Unconditional:  The ultimate promises that David's house, kingdom, and throne will endure forever is an unconditional covenant. (II Sam. 7:15-16; Ps. 89:33-37)

To David (II Sam. 7:8-11a):  (1) As he had blessed him in his early years, so God would bless him in his later years.  (2) God would make his name great.  (3) God would provide a future home for his people.  (4) God would protect his future people from all their enemies.
To David's son Solomon (7:11b-15) (David's son Solomon is a type of God's Son who would one day build the church as the dwelling place of God.)  (1) He would build the house David wanted to build—the temple.  (2) God would discipline him when he was disobedient (and would discipline his descendents. See Jer. 29:16-19, 22:30)  (This discipline is a type of Jesus taking the punishment for our sins. See Isa. 53)  (3) God would not take His love from him (as he did from Saul).
To a future Son—Jesus (II Sam. 7:16)  (II Sam. 23:5; I Kings 11:12-13, 32-39, 15:4-5; II Kings 8:19; II Chron. 21:7; Ps. 45, 72, 89:3-4, 27-29, 33-37, 110, 132; Isa. 9:6-7, 11:1, 16:5, 55:3; Jer. 23:5-6, 30:8-9, 33:14-17, 20-26; Ezek. 34:23-24, 37:15-28; Dan. 2:44, 7:13-14; Hos. 3:4-5; Amos 9:11; Zech. 13:1, 14:9; Matt. 22:41-46; Luke 1:26-33; Acts 2:28-30, 13:22-23, Rev. 3:7, 5:5, 11:15, 22:16)

Premillennial and Amillennial interpretations of the Davidic Covenant contrasted: (The question is not if Christ fulfills the covenant, but how He fulfills it.)

The Amillennial position:  Jesus is fulfilling the covenant today by His rule over the church.  (1) The covenant was conditional.  Because of Israel's disobedience and rejection of the Messiah, they have been rejected and the promise has been transferred to the church. Matt. 22:1-14)  (Because the uncircumcised male was to be cut off—see Gen. 17:14—and under Moses, the disobedient could not enter the Promised Land—see Numb. 14:26-30—so, both the Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants are conditional on Israel's obedience. I Kings 2:4, 8:25-26, 9:4-9) (2) The covenant is fulfilled spiritually by the church rather than in an earthly way by the nation of Israel. (Acts 2:24-36; Heb. 12:22-24; Gal. 4:25-26) See also Rom.9:6; I Cor. 10:18, Gal. 6:16)

The Premillennial position:  Jesus will fulfill the covenant to the physical nation of Israel during His millennial rule.  (1) There are promises to Israel that still have not been fulfilled. See II Sam. 7:10-11; Jer. 23:5-6; Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:15-28, Rom. 11:25-32  (2) The promises to Israel of a coming King are not conditional. See Isa. 9:6-7; Jer. 23:5-6; 30:8-9  (3) A 1000 year reign of Christ is predicted after the church began. See Revelation 20:1-10   (4) Nothing can prevent God from fulfilling His promise to Israel. See Jer. 32:36-44, 33:19-26  (6) Israel has recently been restored as a nation as predicted (1948). See Ezek. 37:2-22; Mic. 4:6)

The Davidic Covenant compared to the Abrahamic, Mosaic, and the New Covenants:

The Davidic Covenant compared to the Abrahamic Covenant: The nation promised to Abraham will be ruled over by a king from David's line—ruled by Jesus Christ. "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end." (Luke 1:32-33)

The Davidic Covenant compared to the Mosaic Covenant: Israel's sin must be dealt with before the Davidic covenant can be fulfilled.  "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: 'Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.'" (Galatians 3:13)  "But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons." (Galatians 4:4-5)

The Davidic Covenant compared to the New Covenant:  Jesus Christ's blood made it possible for us to be freed from the law so that we might come to God through grace and faith.  "In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.'" (I Corinthians 11:25)  The promised King paid the ultimate price that we who could not earn a place in His kingdom received a place in His kingdom through His grace.

Old Testament Overview Studies

Old Testament Overview
Table of Contents
Old Testament Overview Outline
Old Testament Overview Genesis
Old Testament Overview Exodus to Deuteronomy
Old Testament Overview Furniture of the Tabernacle
Old Testament Overview Dress of Priests and High Priest
Old Testament Overview Dress of High Priest
Old Testament Overview Canaan: What Can it Teach Us?
Old Testament Overview Israel, God's Kingdom
Old Testament Overview Moses—Failure the Backdoor to Success
Old Testament Overview The Mosaic Covenant
Old Testament Overview The Ten Commandments
Old Testament Overview The Offerings
Old Testament Overview Uncleanness
Old Testament Overview The Priesthood
Old Testament Overview The Festivals
Old Testament Overview The Nazirite Vow
Old Testament Overview Joshua to Ruth
Old Testament Overview Prophecies of the Redeemer—Genesis to Ruth
Old Testament Overview I and II Samuel
Old Testament Overview Saul and David Compared
Old Testament Overview Jonathan and David Compared
Old Testament Overview The Davidic Covenant
Old Testament Overview I And II Kings
Old Testament Overview Israel's and Judah's Kings
Old Testament Overview Divided Kings who Divided
Old Testament Overview Criticisms of God's Actions in the Old Testament
Old Testament Overview Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther
Old Testament Overview Ruth and Esther Compared
Old Testament Overview Job to Song of Solomon
Old Testament Overview Proverbs: Wise Man or Fool?
Old Testament Overview Isaiah
Old Testament Overview Jeremiah
Old Testament Overview Daniel
Old Testament Overview Hosea
Old Testament Overview Joel
Old Testament Overview Amos
Old Testament Overview Obadiah
Old Testament Overview Jonah
Old Testament Overview Micah
Old Testament Overview Nahum
Old Testament Overview Habakkuk
Old Testament Overview Zephaniah
Old Testament Overview Haggai
Old Testament Overview Zechariah
Old Testament Overview Malachi