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Old Testament Overview - Exodus - Deuteronomy

1. Exodus to Deuteronomy. 

Exodus: God rescues His nation from slavery and gives them His Law—symbolic of God opening a way into His presence and into a relationship with Him by a blood sacrifice.

Key Events:  God rescuing His nation from slavery in Egypt through the blood of the Passover Lamb (11-12).  The crossing of the Red Sea (13:17-14:31).  The Law given at Mount Sinai (19:1-20:21).  Instructions about the tabernacle (25-27).  The golden calf (32).

Key People: Moses' parents, the Pharaoh's daughter, Moses, the Pharaoh, and Aaron

Key Teachings:  The Mosaic covenant (19:4-6).  The Ten Commandments (20:1-21) The meaning of the tabernacle.  The symbolism of the High Priests and the priest (28-29).

Key Verses:  3:1-4:18, 11:1-12:50, 14:13-31, 19:4-6, 20:1-21, 23:20-33, 24:15-17, 32:1-35, 33:19-22, 34:29-35


Leviticus:  The path to fellowship with a holy God (God's plan for Israel to live as a holy nation—what's needed for unholy people to live in fellowship with a holy God).

Key teachings:  The offerings (1-7).  Stedman's four parts: (1) the selection of the sacrifice; (2) laying hands on the sacrifice—symbolic of it being a substitution for us; (3) the killing of the sacrifice; and (4) the sprinkling of the sacrifice or the burning of the sacrifice. (taken from Highlights of the Bible).  The priesthood (8-10).  Our need for cleansing (11-16).  The Day of Atonement (16).  Our need to be cleansed through blood (17:11).  Impure sexual relationships (18). The festivals (23).  The Sabbatical Year and the Year of Jubilee (25).  The rewards for obedience and punishments for disobedience (26-27).

Key Verses:  16:1-34, 17:11, 18:22, 19:2, 31, 20:6, 13


Numbers:  Israel's unbelief, fearfulness, and grumbling; followed by God's discipline: forty years of wandering in the wilderness—symbolic of God's discipline of us

Key Events:  Grumbling about the food (11)  Moses' grumbling (11:10-15).  Miriam and Aaron oppose Moses (12).  The spies sent out to Canaan and their unbelief (13-14).  Rebellion against Moses' leadership (16).  Aaron's rod buds (17).  Water from the rock and Moses' disobedience—Moses barred from going into the Promised Land (20:1-13).  The bronze snake (21:4-9).  Balak and Balaam (22-25). Joshua to replace Moses (21:12-23).

Key People:  Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Joshua, Caleb, Korah, Dathan, Abiram, Balak, Balaam

Key Teaching:  Israel's grumbling, fear of man (grasshopper faith), rebellion, impatience, and immorality are warnings to us not to do the same.  "Now these things occurred as examples to keep us from setting our hearts on evil things as they did. Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written: 'The people sat down to eat and drink and got up to indulge in pagan revelry.' We should not commit sexual immorality, as some of them did—and in one day twenty-three thousand of them died. We should not test the Lord, as some of them did—and were killed by snakes. And do not grumble, as some of them did—and were killed by the destroying angel. These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come." (1 Corinthians 10:6-11)

Key Verses:  11:10-15, 18-20, 12:3, 13-14, 16:28-35, 20:1-13, 21:8-9


Deuteronomy:  The second giving of the Law (deuteros=second; nomos= Law)
The form of the book follows the pattern for treaties, of that time, made between rulers and those they ruled.  The goal of these treaties was to gain the obedience of the people that they ruled.  The goal of Deuteronomy was to gain the obedience of Israel to God.  The pattern of Deuteronomy follows the pattern of these ancient treaties: (1) The author's preamble (naming the author of the treaty) (1:1-5); (2) the historical context of the treaty—describing the historical relationship between God and His people (1:6-4:49); (3) how the people need to do to fulfill their responsibilities to God (5:1-26:19) (general responsibilities, 5:1-26:19) (detailed responsibilities, 12:1-26:19); and (4) the curses and blessings for obedience and disobedience (27-30).

Key Teachings:  The teaching of children (4:9, 6:4-9).  The Ten Commandments (the second giving of them) (5:1-21).  Israel's false self-confidence (5:23-29).  The "cities of refuge" (4:41-43, 19:1-14).  God is one (6:4) (the Shema).  Do not forget God (6:10-12).  God's gracious choosing of Israel (not because they deserved it) (7:7-10).  God's discipline of Israel and its purpose (8:1-5).  Do not forget that it is God's power that made you great (not your power) (8:10-15, 9:4-7).  The false prophet (13:1-11, 18:20-22).  Against witchcraft (18:9-14).  The future Prophet (18:15-19).  Instructions about divorce (24:1-4).  Kinsman Redeemer (25:5-10).  Curses and blessings to be given on Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim (27:1-28:68).  The renewal of the covenant (29:1-29).  A future time of God's blessing (30:1-10).  God offers Israel a choice that they can obey if they choose to (30:11-20).  Israel's rebellion predicted by God (31:14-22).  Moses completed the writing of the Law and it was placed in the ark of the covenant (31:24-25).  The death of Moses (32:48-52, 34:1-8).

Key Verses:  1:42, 2:30, 4:1-2, 9, 29, 5:1-21, 23-20, 6:4-9, 7:7-10, 15, 8:1-5, 10-18, 22:5-11 (rules that are not easy to understand), 23:9-10, 25:4 (and I Corinthians 9:8-10), 25:5-10, 27:1-28:68, 30:6, 11-20, 31:1-8, 14-22, 24-29, 33:48-52, 34:1-8

Old Testament Overview Studies

Old Testament Overview
Table of Contents
Old Testament Overview Outline
Old Testament Overview Genesis
Old Testament Overview Exodus to Deuteronomy
Old Testament Overview Furniture of the Tabernacle
Old Testament Overview Dress of Priests and High Priest
Old Testament Overview Dress of High Priest
Old Testament Overview Canaan: What Can it Teach Us?
Old Testament Overview Israel, God's Kingdom
Old Testament Overview Moses—Failure the Backdoor to Success
Old Testament Overview The Mosaic Covenant
Old Testament Overview The Ten Commandments
Old Testament Overview The Offerings
Old Testament Overview Uncleanness
Old Testament Overview The Priesthood
Old Testament Overview The Festivals
Old Testament Overview The Nazirite Vow
Old Testament Overview Joshua to Ruth
Old Testament Overview Prophecies of the Redeemer—Genesis to Ruth
Old Testament Overview I and II Samuel
Old Testament Overview Saul and David Compared
Old Testament Overview Jonathan and David Compared
Old Testament Overview The Davidic Covenant
Old Testament Overview I And II Kings
Old Testament Overview Israel's and Judah's Kings
Old Testament Overview Divided Kings who Divided
Old Testament Overview Criticisms of God's Actions in the Old Testament
Old Testament Overview Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther
Old Testament Overview Ruth and Esther Compared
Old Testament Overview Job to Song of Solomon
Old Testament Overview Proverbs: Wise Man or Fool?
Old Testament Overview Isaiah
Old Testament Overview Jeremiah
Old Testament Overview Daniel
Old Testament Overview Hosea
Old Testament Overview Joel
Old Testament Overview Amos
Old Testament Overview Obadiah
Old Testament Overview Jonah
Old Testament Overview Micah
Old Testament Overview Nahum
Old Testament Overview Habakkuk
Old Testament Overview Zephaniah
Old Testament Overview Haggai
Old Testament Overview Zechariah
Old Testament Overview Malachi